Psychiatry, Photography, and Lobotomy: A Bibliography

C. Amirault, “Posing the Subject of Early Medical Photography,” Discourse: Berkeley Journal for Theoretical Studies in Media and Culture (1993): 51.

Carol M Armstrong, Scenes in a Library: Reading the Photograph in the Book, 1843-1875 (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998).

Carol Armstrong, “Probing Pictures: Carol Armstrong on Georges Didi-Huberman (Book Review),” Artforum International 42, no. 1 (September 2003): 55-56.

Michael Bliss, Harvey Cushing: A Life in Surgery (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Michael Bliss, “Introduction,” in The Legacy of Harvey Cushing: Profiles of Patient Care (New York: Thieme, 2007), vii-x.

Joel T Braslow, Mental Ills and Bodily Cures: Psychiatric Treatment in the First Half of the Twentieth Century, Medicine and Society 8 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

Jean Martin Charcot, Bourneville, and Edouard Brissaud, Oeuvres completes de J.M. Charcot, vol. 9 (Bureaux du Progrès Médical, 1890).

Jean Martin Charcot, Bourneville, and J. F. F. Babinski, Oeuvres complètes de J.M. Charcot. t.1-: Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux, recueillies et pub. par Bourneville. 1892-94., vol. 1 (Paris: Bureau du Progres Médical, 1892).

The Legacy of Harvey Cushing: Profiles of Patient Care (New York: Thieme, 2007).

Georges Didi-Huberman, Invention of Hysteria: Charcot and the Photographic Iconography of the Salpêtrière (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2003).

Brian Dolan, “Soul Searching: A Brief History of the Mind/Body Debate in the Neurosciences,” Neurosurgical FOCUS 23, no. 1 (7, 2007): 1-7.

Tim Dolin, “’Cranford’ and the Victorian Collection,” Victorian Studies 36, no. 2 (Winter 1993): 179-206.

Finis Dusaway, “Hunting with the Camera: Nature Photography, Manliness, and Modern Memory, 1890–1930,” Journal of American Studies 34, no. 02 (2000): 207-230.

Ellen Dwyer, “Toward New Narratives of Twentieth-Century Medicine,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 74, no. 4 (2000): 786-793.

Elizabeth Edwards, Raw Histories: Photographs, Anthropology and Museums, Materializing culture (Oxford: Berg, 2001).

Louise Eisenhardt, “Concerning a Registry of Brain Tumors,” American Journal of Pathology (n.d.).

Jack El-Hai, The Lobotomist: A Maverick Medical Genius and His Tragic Quest to Rid the World of Mental Illness (Hoboken, N.J: J. Wiley, 2005).

Martin Elks, “Visual Rhetoric: Photographs of the Feeble-Minded During the Eugenics Era, 1900-1930” (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University, 1992).

Michel Foucault, Birth of the Clinic: An Archeology of Medical Perception (New York: Pantheon, 1973).

Walter Freeman, Psychosurgery in the Treatment of Mental Disorders and Intractable Pain, 2nd ed. (Springfield, Ill: C. C. Thomas, 1950).

Walter Freeman, “Head-and-Shoulder Hunting in the Americas: Photographic Follow-Up Studies in Lobotomy,” Medical Annals of the District of Columbia 27, no. 7 (July 1958): 336-345.

Walter Freeman, “With Camera and Ice-Pick in Search of the Super-Ego” (Los Altos, Cal., April 22, 1960), Walter Freeman/James Watts Collection, Melvin Gelman Library Special Collections Research Center, George Washington University.

Walter Freeman, The Psychiatrist; Personalities and Patterns (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968).

Walter Freeman, “Adventures in Lobotomy,” n.d., Walter Freeman/James Watts Collection, Melvin Gelman Library Special Collections Research Center, George Washington University.

Walter Freeman, “Autobiography,” n.d., Walter Freeman/James Watts Collection, Melvin Gelman Library Special Collections Research Center, George Washington University.

Walter Freeman, James Winston Watts, and Thelma Hunt, Psychosurgery (Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas, 1942).

Sander L. Gilman, Seeing the Insane (University of Nebraska Press, 1996).

———. The Face of Madness: Hugh W. Diamond and the Origin of Psychiatric Photography (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1976).

Christopher G Goetz, Michel Bonduelle, and Toby Gelfand, Charcot: Constructing Neurology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

Tom Gunning, “In Your Face: Physiognomy, Photography, and the Gnostic Mission of Early Film,” Modernism/modernity 4, no. 1 (1997): 1-29.

Jennifer Tucker, “The Historian, the Picture, and the Archive,” Isis 97, no. 1 (n.d.): 111-120.

Martin Kemp, “”A Perfect and Faithful Record”: Mind and Body in Medical Photography Before 1900,” in Beauty of Another Order: Photography in Science (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press in association with the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1997), 120-49.

Johann Caspar Lavater, Essays on Physiognomy for the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind; Written in the German Language by J. C. Lavater, Abridged from Mr. Holcrofts Translation (London: Printed for G. G. J. & J. Robinson, 1800).

Alisa Luxenberg, “’The art of correctly painting the expressive lines of the human face’: Duchenne de Boulogne’s photographs of human expression and the École des Beaux-Arts,” History of Photography 25, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 201-213.

Daphne de Marneffe, “Looking and Listening: The Construction of Clinical Knowledge in Charcot and Freud,” Signs 17, no. 1 (Autumn 1991): 71-111.

Anne Maxwell, Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics 1870-1940 (Brighton [England]: Sussex Academic Press, 2008).

Mark S. Micale, ‘The Psychiatric Body,’ in Companion to Medicine in the Twentieth Century, ed. Roger Cooter and John Pickstone (Taylor & Francis, 2003), 323-346.

Iwan Rhys Morus, “Seeing and Believing Science,” Isis 97, no. 1 (March 1, 2006): 101-110.

Susan M Pearce, On Collecting: An Investigation into Collecting in the European Tradition (London: Routledge, 1995).

Sharronna Pearl, “Through a Mediated Mirror: The Photographic Physiognomy of Dr Hugh Welch Diamond,” History of Photography 33, no. 3 (June 2009): 288-305.

———. About Faces: Physiognomy in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2010).

Jack David Pressman, Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine, Cambridge History of Medicine (Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Phillip Prodger, Darwin’s Camera (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Salpêtrière (Hospital), and Société de, Nouvelle Iconographie De La Salpêtrièr (Paris: Lecrosnier et Babé, 1888).

A Scull, “Somatic treatments and the historiography of psychiatry,” History of Psychiatry 5, no. 17 (March 1994): 1-12.

Allan Sekula, “The Body and the Archive,” in The Contest of Meaning: Critical Histories of Photography, ed. Richard Bolton (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1989), 343-388.

David Shutts, Lobotomy: Resort to the Knife (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982).

Barbara Maria Stafford, Body Criticism: Imaging the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1991).

Susan Stewart, On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection (Duke University Press, 1993).

John Tagg, “A Means of Surveillance: The Photograph as Evidence in Law,” in The Burden of Representation (London: Macmillan Education, 1988).

John Tagg, The Burden of Representation (U of Minnesota Press, 1993).

Elliot S Valenstein, Great and Desperate Cures: The Rise and Decline of Psychosurgery and Other Radical Treatments for Mental Illness (New York: Basic Books, 1986).

Koen Vermier, “The Magic of the Magic Lantern (1660–1700): On Analogical Demonstration and the Visualization of the Invisible,” The British Journal for the History of Science 38, no. 02 (2005): 127-159.

Christopher J. Wahl et al., “Cushing Brain Tumor Registry: A Diary of Neurological Surgery During its Conception,” in The Legacy of Harvey Cushing: Profiles of Patient Care (New York: Thieme, 2007), xi-xxi.

Christopher J. Wahl et al., “Harvey Cushing as a Book Collector, Bibliophile, and Archivist: the Precedence for the Genesis of the Brain Tumor Registry,” Journal of Neurosurgery 111, no. 5 (11, 2009): 1091-1095.

A.F. Wallace, “The Early History of Clinical Photography for Burns, Plastic and Reconstructive surgery,” British Journal of Plastic Surgery 38, no. 4 (October 1985): 451-465.

“Dr. Harvey Cushing Collection (The Fulton-Cushing Collection),” n.d.,

“Cyber Museum of Neurosurgery,” n.d.,

8 Replies to “Psychiatry, Photography, and Lobotomy: A Bibliography”

  1. I’m writing my postgraduate thesis on the rise of schizophrenia in America and the era of shock treatments. I’m just wondering whether you could tell me where Walter Freeman’s photographs of his patients can be accessed? Or where they are published?
    Many thanks,

  2. Hi there. I’m currently writing my postgraduate thesis on the rise of schizophrenia in America and the era of shock treatments and was just wondering whether you could tell me where I can access Walter Freeman’s photographs of his patients? Or where they have been published?
    Many thanks,

  3. Psychiatrist enforce forcible confinement, forced drugging, slander towards intelligent normal healthy people in the name of helping them… The psychiatric drugs, shock treatments, and slander cause permanent brain damage, and premature aging leading to premature death. I want justice for damages, caused by psychiatry cause I’m a billion dollar man. Furthermore, I’m a bigger Doctor with more credentials, and human dignity. I should win justice in the future when people finally catch up to me they will realize that I’m a Genius. It would be a Miracle to get my life back. Nurses are complaining of the violence towards them in hospital, well they are only getting what they deserve. Moreover, taking psychiatric drugs is more powerful than taking cocaine or lsd. In my studies psych drugs have zero benefits and they fall in the same class as methamphetamines. Psychiatrist should be put in prison for the rest of their miserable lives those psychopathic criminals… Even better Psychiatrist should be hanged the old fashioned way, for what they’re doing is a crime against humanity. Psychiatrist are killing men and woman; slowly melting their brains with the DSM-V replacing the Malleus Maleficarum, raping their minds un-ashamedly treating their fellow brothers and sisters without any dignity, compassion, or scientific evidence. Psychopathic bastards with their medical association the number one government lobbying agent second only to the pharmaceuticals. Outlaws using legislated statutes to rape man our veterinarian treats our dogs with more compassion and dignity. Doctor Will MD-PhD

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